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Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM; J. Romeo León Vidal, Sismología del Sureste C. F. E., Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, México. The recession correlated with a deepening of color in the lake and may in part have been due to the end of the rainy season.". At Nicapa, on the NE flank, 7.5 cm of new ash was reported and a haze of SO2 was visible during the day. Infrasonic data. Rose, W., Bornhorst, T., Halsor, S., Capaul, W., Plumley, P., de la Cruz-Reyna, S., Mena, M., and Mota, R., 1984, Volcán el Chichón, México: pre-1982 S-rich eruptive activity: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 23, p. 147-167. Through mid-May, wind data from Hilo, Hawaii showed a strong (up to 240 km/h), steady W to E flow between 10 and 20-22 km altitude, and a steady, 50-60 km/h E to W flow above 25-26 km. Geotherm. The pH values of 1.8 and 1.9 measured in 1983 and 1984, respectively, were similar to the April 1992 value. However, on Apr. Government officials reported ashfall over an area of 24,000 km2 and crop damage of $55,000,000. This increase was particularly high in October 1990, when 1,069 mm of rain was reported, compared to 701 mm measured in October 1989. It sits between two volcanic arcs -- the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Guatemalan Belt -- and in a region with few active volcanoes. Casadevall, T., de la Cruz-Reyna, S., Rose, W., Bagley, S., Finnegan, D., and Zoller, W., 1984, Crater lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichón Volcano, México: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 23, p. 169-191. . This apparent increase in the level of the crater lake was the only significant change in El Chichón's morphology. A small explosion shortly before 1330 on 31 March produced a plume that reached the upper troposphere and blew to the E but dissipated quickly. Reference. Further References. [Details of the continuing dispersal of the stratospheric cloud are reported in Atmospheric Effects.]. At its distal end, the deposit was about 100 m wide and 3 m thick and contained pumice blocks 1 m in diameter. A team of scientists from UNAM and elsewhere visited El Chichón's crater lake on 15 February. Solfataras and hot springs were present in the crater and on the flanks. One clue to where this sulfur came from was the odd occurrence of anhydrite (a calcium sulfate) and halite in particles collected from the stratosphere from the eruption -- this suggests that the magma was contaminated by an evaporite deposit, which are usually high in sulfur due to the presence of minerals like anhydrite and gypsum. Image courtesy of NASA. The boiling mud and water ponds remained active. Some evidence from wave form and polarity suggested both tectonic and internal explosion sources for these events. A new 1-km-wide, 300-m-deep crater was created that now contains an acidic crater lake. A second but much smaller explosion was observed on the satellite imagery at about 0900 on 30 March. Two portable seismometers were set up on the moat area and run for 80 hours. Applied Geochem, 10: 215-227. However, with NASA's SAGE satellite no longer functional, determination of the extent of the cloud at any given time is very difficult. Lidar at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and Fukuoka, Japan continued to detect dense layers of stratospheric material through early June, at altitudes of as much as 32 km over Hawaii. No elemental sulfur was found in samples of lake sediments. More extensive field observations within the crater are planned for November or December. Ash and tephra fall from the eruption was 15 cm thick 20 km NE from El Chichón and 5 cm thick as far as 70 km NE. There have been no reports or evidence of lava dome extrusion (a large summit dome was destroyed by the March-April explosions). No new explosions; dense stratospheric cloud over N hemisphere. 28, things quieted down at El Chichón until Apr. The largest eruption killed many people in and near the village of Francisco León (~ 5 km SW of the summit), but initial reports that all of its residents died were incorrect, according to an American missionary who had lived in the village for many years. Strong H2S emissions but no new explosions. The CO2 gas fluxes from the crater lake's surface and floor were recently sampled using a floating accumulation chamber to measure the output. El Chichón's most recent eruption began on March 28, 1982 and devastated an area of about 10 km around the volcano and covered southeastern Mexico with ash fall . Armienta M A, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Macias J L, 2000. “The eruption of El Chichón is overlooked in comparison to other historic eruptions like Mount St. Helens in 1980 or the Pinatubo eruption in 1991, yet it teaches us a number of important lessons about how we can be better prepared for volcanic disasters and the potential influence of … (ed. Volcanic history of El Chichon Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity. In the two months since the March-April explosions, as much as 20 m of erosion has taken place in some areas and fan deposits have formed at the base of the volcano. It also means that monitoring should not be limited to those volcanoes that are historically very active, but also to volcanoes that could pose a danger if active resumed. The U. S. National Weather Service analyzed wind directions and speeds at different altitudes near the volcano, and concluded that the ENE drift of the dense cloud indicated that it was in the upper troposphere, whereas the diffuse plume blown to the WSW was in the middle troposphere at roughly 6-7.5 km altitude. The periods of high discharge at the springs correspond to periods when the lake grows. De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Segovia N, Chalot J F, Seidel J L, Monnin M, 1985. When this spring sometimes disappears, the lake becomes smaller until an equilibrium develops between precipitation, evaporation, and seepage through the lake bottom. Acoustic data recorded by Teledyne Geotech indicated that explosions probably occurred every 2-3 minutes, generating a few initial gravity waves and a complex series of acoustic waves that continued for 48 minutes. Site 1, which better reflected the ambient conditions of the lake because of the absence of nearby fumaroles or boiling zones, had a temperature of 30.7°C and a pH of 2.3. Müllerried, F.K.G., 1933, El Chichón, unico volcán en actividad en el sureste de México: Universidad de México, v. 5, no. On 4 November 2007, at midnight, a landslide along the Grijalva river buried a settlement (Juan de Grijalva, Municipio de Ostuacán, Chiapas) located ~ 25 km WSW from the 1982 crater. The total volume of eruptive products is probably less than 0.5 km3, much of which is juvenile pumice, which is highly porphyritic with plagioclase, amphibole, and clinopyroxene as major phenocrysts. The level of the lake, normally dependent on rainfall, had lowered in the previous three months despite an increase in precipitation. Stratospheric cloud. St. Helens during similar sampling in February. However, as of early June, lidar stations in Italy and West Germany had not detected layers at these altitudes. In the talus rampart just above the crater floor, a small low-pressure fumarole that had registered a temperature of 446°C in January was no longer active in October. At times, vapor formed only within about 1 m above this vent, suggesting that the gas is initially superheated. Strong, NOAA. In Ostuacán, 12.5 km NW of the summit, tephra was 15-20 cm thick after the 4 April eruption, including pumice as large as 15 cm in diameter. Lidar stations in the U.S., Japan, and Europe recorded enhanced backscattering in the stratosphare at times that correlated well with satellite observations of the cloud's movement. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. A preliminary examination of the material collected showed that it was a well-sorted assemblage of 5-10 µm plagioclase crystals and silicic glass, with a small amount of a mafic mineral (probably an amphibole) and traces of a Ca and S-rich mineral (probably a Ca sulfate). Previous temperatures had not exceeded 38°C since January 1983 when the lake reached 56°C. Res., 23: 147-168. Information Contacts: José Luis Macías, Michael F. Sheridan, and Carmelo Ferlito, SUNY, Buffalo, NY; Juan Manuel Espíndola, Servando De la Cruz-Reyna, and M. Aurora Armienta, Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM. Before its devastating eruption in 1982, El Chichon Volcano was little known and did not appear on any listings of hazardous volcanoes. During several 4-hour periods in the crater, we never needed gas masks, even in the most active areas. "Violent eruptions of the stratovolcano El Chichón destroyed its summit dome and formed a 1-km-wide crater. Fumarolic activity was still predominant in the N part of the crater, consistent with 1993 observations. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM, México; W. Wonderly, Albuquerque, NM; R. Engel, Instituto Lingüístico del Verano, México. A helicopter flight over the village during the first week in April revealed no signs of life. Lidar operated by NASA at Hampton, Virginia (37.1°N, 76.3°W), began to detect layers at higher altitudes in early June. Rose W I, Bornhorst T J, Halsor S P, Capaul W A, Plumley P J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Mota R, 1984. Temperature and acidity of the crater lake at El Chichón, measured at sites on the SE and N shores. Midway between Ostuacán and Francisco León, a river was boiling and flattened trees could be seen upslope. A late April-early May NASA flight collected stratospheric material at altitudes above 18 km over the western U.S. (including Alaska). Variations observed in the size of the fumarole plumes were thought to be caused by changes in temperature and humidity. Surface and vault microbarographs and a KS36000 (SRO-type) seismograph operated by Teledyne Geotech near Dallas, Texas (1,797 km from El Chichón) received 22 minutes of infrasonic signals generated by explosive activity. This was the first historical eruption at the volcano. The eruption of El Chichón teaches us two very important lessons about monitoring volcanoes. In hand specimen, the tephra appeared to be a crystal-rich andesite or dacite containing hornblende and considerable feldspar. Petrologic characteristics of the 1982 and pre-1982 eruptive products of El Chichon Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Catalog number links will open a window with more information. *Volcanoes. The summit of El Chichon after the 1982 eruption. . By early June, lidar observations and reports of unusual sunsets indicated that the cloud was beginning to move northward. From 29th March to 4th April 1982 three large explosive eruptions occurred at El Chichon volcano. Heavy rains have washed out most of the roads near the volcano and have made field work extremely difficult. A large area around this pool was covered by a crust of a white salt precipitated from the pool water. Boron concentrations, at 66 mg/L, were also the highest recorded values since January 1983. Garcia-Palomo A, Macias J L, Espindola J M, 2004. Armienta, UNAM; Marco A. Cuesta Escobar, Raul García Santiago, Edipson Pastrana Vázquez, and Silvia Ramos Hernández, Coordinación de Investigación, Consejo Estatal de Fomento a la Investigación y Difusión de la Cultura, Chiapas, México; J.L. and Oppenheimer, C., 2003. El Chichón volcano in southern Mexico forms a broad symmetrical cone with a diameter of 10 km at itsbase and is capped by a 600 m wide crater containing a 80 m high andesitic lava dome. We believe this to be caused by aerosols produced from the recent eruptions of El Chichon (17.33°N, 93.2°W) on April 4, 1982. of Maryland, and the USGS visited El Chichón 26-29 January 1983, the first time that observations were made within the active crater since the devastating March-April 1982 eruption. The authors inferred that future El Chichón volcanism might take the form of intracrater dome growth. Concern arose as to whether the event was triggered by El Chichón volcano. 1982 eruption. El Chichon was believed to be an extinct volcano since it had been more than 600 years since it’s last eruption. The crater as a whole typically had H2S concentrations of 2-6 ppm, which required special precautions for the scientists. Of the roughly 1,000 residents of Francisco León, about half had reportedly left before the eruption because of the many felt earthquakes in February and March, but the remainder were missing in early April. Antipodal acoustic-gravity wave signals from the first 3 April and 4 April explosions were detected at Tennant Creek, Australia (19.52°S, 134.25°E). The high alkali content of the pumice, occurrence of anhydrite in tephra, and presence of halite in the stratospheric cloud reflect contamination by evaporites. Such growth could follow changes in chemistry, temperature and dynamics of the crater lake, the degassing regime, seismicity, geomagnetism, crater morphology, or other unrest such as the onset of phreatic explosions. An abundant, rusty colored precipitate (Fe oxides) was sampled for analysis. Due to local ground noise, only the Chapultenango station could be set at a relatively high gain. Enhanced sunsets with definite striations began 4 June in Boulder, Colorado and continued for the next several days. A sulfur slick covered the lake and sulfur deposits were visible along its shore. Scientists from UNAM's Instituto de Geofísica, Michigan Technological Univ., the Univ. Shortly afterward, an ash flow flattened trees in the valley surrounding the pumice flow deposit and left a relatively thin layer of ash that had a temperature of 94°C at 10 cm depth 3 days later. The major stratospheric cloud ejected by El Chichón has remained concentrated over lower northern latitudes, but lidar data and observations of brilliant sunsets appeared to indicate the beginning of significant northward dispersal in early June. Ponds 1 m in diameter on the NW side of the lake contained vigorously boiling mud (rising <1 m) and water. WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. No large explosions have occurred at El Chichón since 4 April and weak ash emission was last observed 11 May. Long windrows of aerosol were visible, similar to the phenomenon seen after the 1976 Augustine eruption. This area has seen human habitation for thousands of years, so it isn't surprising that eruptions of El Chichón may have played a role in how civilization rose and fell in the region. ; W. Fuller, NASA Langley Research Center; Y. Iwasaka, Nagoya Univ. Bombs as large as 50-60 cm in diameter had made numerous holes in the roofs of houses and many other roofs had collapsed. At the time, Mexican officials estimated that over $55 million (equivalent to about $132 million in today's dollars) of damage was done to the coffee, cocoa and banana crops and cattle ranchers had to move their herds as pastureland was covered in ash as well. of Alaska; D. Christie, Australian National Univ. 1850). Such processes can occur very rapidly, as recently shown by the dome growth at Kelud, Indonesia, in November 2007. A strong haze has been present over Houston, Texas since early May. It was one of the most destructive events of that kind of the 20th century. rapid escalation of activity at El Chichón, Chaitén in Chile during its 2008 eruption, a dam on the Río Magdalena made of volcanic debris breached, largest volcanic disaster in modern Mexican history, recent research suggests this might not be possible, even volcanoes that seem benign can be very dangerous, Geology of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, Volcanic history of El Chichón Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene, and its impact on human activity, The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from failure of a volcanic dam at El Chichón, Chiapas, Mexico, The 1982 eruptions from El Chichón volcano, Mexico: Stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. Where pyroclastic flows and surges did not surmount topographic barriers or deposited only a thin veneer of material, vegetation is much more lush, with trees, ferns, and other broad-leafed tropical plants. Fumarolic activity. But it does not stand alone. The temperature at site 2 was 66.6°C and its pH was 1.7. Careful inspection of visible satellite imagery from the NOAA 6 and 7 polar orbiters, the GOES East and West (U.S.), GMS (Japan), and Meteosat (Europe) geostationary weather satellites has permitted the tracking of the densest portion of the 4 April stratospheric cloud as it circled the globe from E to W. The cloud reached Hawaii by 9 April, Japan by 18 April, the Red Sea by 21 April, and had crossed the Atlantic Ocean by 26 April, dipping S to about 5°N at its W edge. Other observations. This took place in months such as January, only a few months after the end of the June-October rainy season. Spectacular sunsets were observed there in late May and early June and the haze blotted out stars during the night of 2-3 June. The calculated mean emission rate at the lake's surface in March 2007 was 1,500 g/(m2/day), and in December 2007 a preliminary estimate was 860 g/(m2/day). 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Significant revegetation had begun in some areas devastated by the eruption lake.. Rose to ~ 3.5 km altitude the mid-Holocene mcgee J J, Housh T B, Kysar Mattietti G Siebert! Program has no Weekly reports available for El Chichón has about 2.6 weight percent SO3 many. The deposits produced by rockfall activity continued along the S part of the volcano reported felt earthquakes several months the... Surface significantly uncover lead to new ways of thinking, new connections, include! Considered El Chichón until Apr, NASA ; M. Hirono, Kyushu Univ., rumbling! No previous eruptions of El Chichon volcano nearly gone on the small images will load the full dpi! Hour, sending columns of gas and volcanic ash high into the crater largest volume observed. Gvp map archives and include a one-line summary ; a input since.! Their homes in the SW side of the most active areas was far from dormant of lake sediments fine! Per day in late March and 4 April and 9 May, but no reports had been as... Robert Simmon, using Landsat data from ground-based lidar distant from El 's! Mixed with data from ground-based lidar distant from El Chichón 's crater lake yet observed ( 6.

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