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The Baffin Island Inuit have lived on the island for thousands of years and are descended from the earlier Thule culture. However, the "discovery" of Baffin Island is credited to Martin Frobisher (1539-1594) who landed in Frobisher Bay in 1576 while searching for the Northwest Passage. Relics, including yarn and a carved face mask discovered near Kimmirut, point to European contact with the Inuit of Baffin Island as early as 1,000 years ago. Towering mountains as high as 7,000 feet (2,100 metres) form the backbone of the island’s geography along the north-eastern coasts. Baffin Island: Disappearing ice and climate evidence INSTAAR scientist Giff Miller has been traveling to Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada, nearly every summer for more than 40 years. The walrus, a large, semi-aquatic mammal that is the only non-seal pinniped, do not actually migrate far off land in the winter. Until 1987, the town was called Frobisher Bay, after the English name for the bay on which it is located, named for Martin Frobisher. The varieties of water birds that nest here include coots, loons, mallards, and many other duck species. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada and the 5th largest island in the world. In the 1960s, scientists from the Geographical Branch of Canada's Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources travelled to Baffin to study glacial geomorphology and glaciology. Relics, including yarn and a carved face mask discovered near Kimmirut, point to European contact with the Inuit of Baffin Island as early as 1,000 years ago. The biggest island in Canada (and fifth largest in the world), Baffin Island is a grand wild landscape, the spectacular homeland of the Inuit and an accessible Arctic playground for the adventurous. Summer land visitors to Baffin Island all have wings and all come to the island to nest. Iqaluit was chosen as the capital in December, 1995 and officially recognized as such on April 19, 2001. Facts about Baffin Island 4: the female polar bear. [25] It was about 15 years later that the Norse Greenlanders, led by Leif Erikson, a son of Erik the Red, started exploring new areas around the year 1000. It is located in the region of 70° N and 75° W.[4], It was named by English colonists after English explorer William Baffin. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','2'])); Beluga whale (also know as "white whale"), is a marine mammal rarely found south of latitude 70°N. Only four other islands in the world are larger — Madagascar, Borneo, New Guinea and Greenland. Ancient Origins articles related to Baffin Island in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. Inuit from Baffin Island are descendants of the Thule, who expanded eastward across Canada from Alaska in the 12th and 13th centuries. Overview. Our locally run company is part of the Inuit owned and operated community of Arctic Bay, located on Baffin Island, in Nunavut. They come up to breathe every 30 seconds or so as they make their way along the coastline eating crustaceans. : Art.23 It is sometimes considered a sea of North Atlantic Ocean. Shore birds include the phalarope, various waders (commonly called sandpipers), murres including Brünnich's guillemot, and plovers. His team of researchers and students study the landscape and ice cap left from the Pleistocene, now rapidly melting. However, there is twilight for at least 4 hours per day, unlike places such as Eureka. Their fur is pure white in winter and molts to a scruffy dark grey in summer. Baffin Island Culture & History. In Baffin Island, polar bear mate every year. The Baffin Island Inuit (like other modern Inuit) share biological and cultural links with their Thule ancestors. Its area is 507,451 km2 (195,928 sq mi) and its population was 13,148 as of the 2016 Canadian Census. Settled for a handful of decades but peopled for millennia, it outsizes Canada’s second biggest island, Victoria Island, by an area about the size of Italy. Between the 11th and 13th centuries the Thule spread over the island displacing the Dorset. Barren-ground caribou herds migrate in a limited range from northern and mid-Baffin island down to the southern part in winter, and migrate back north in the summer, even to the southern Frobisher Bay peninsula, next to Resolution Island. [29], Sutherland's research eventually led to a 2012 announcement that whetstones had been found with remnants of alloys indicative of Viking presence. Barbeau Peak, on northern Ellesmere Island , is the territory’s highest point, reaching an elevation of 8,583 feet (2,616 metres). [29] What the source of this Old World contact may have been is unclear and controversial;[24][30][31][32][33] the newspaper article states: Dating of some yarn and other artifacts, presumed to be left by Vikings on Baffin Island, have produced an age that predates the Vikings by several hundred years. Found throughout the Arctic range, one group of bowhead whales are known to migrate to the Foxe Basin, a bay on the western side of Baffin Island. Baffin Island is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut territory, along with Ellesmere and numerous small islands. [16] Mount Sharat,[17] with an elevation of 422 m (1,385 ft) and a prominence of 67 m (220 ft) is located on Baffin Island. The Inuit people have inhabited Baffin Island and much of the Canadian Arctic for thousands of years. historical climate data web site is a gateway to information on matters such as past (hourly, daily, monthly and almanac) weather includes: temperature, snow, snow on ground, precipitation, rain, wind speed and direction, heating and cooling degree days, visibility, relative humidity, wind … Whether it's an outdoor adventure, or an industrial safety application – everything we do is with a purpose. Baffin Island ( Inuit name, Qikiqtaaluk ), French: Île de Baffin) in the territory of Nunavut is the largest member of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. It is still not known if they just visit for the lush sea bounty or calve in the Foxe Basin. Photo courtesy Royal Ontario Museum A prominent Ottawa archaeologist credited in some circles with rewriting the history of Vikings in Canada has accused the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto of “disparaging” her widely publicized research. When the ice melts, they move in to land and can be found basking on rocks close to shore. Baffin Island is one of the major nesting destinations from the Eastern and Mid-West flyways for many species of migrating birds. Early Settlement and Exploration Around 2000 BCE the peoples of the Pre-Dorset Culture began to establish themselves in northern Baffin Island. Arctic foxes are scavengers and often follow polar bears to get their leavings. Inuit from Baffin Island are descendants of the Thule, who expanded eastward across Canada from Alaska in the 12th and 13th centuries. Bjarni appears to be the first European to see Baffin Is… [citation needed], Walruses, which do not migrate far off land in the winter. For example, the eastern community of Clyde River experiences continuous sunlight from May 14 to July 28, a period of nearly 3 months. historical climate data web site is a gateway to information on matters such as past (hourly, daily, monthly and almanac) weather includes: temperature, snow, snow on ground, precipitation, rain, wind speed and direction, heating and cooling degree days, visibility, relative humidity, wind … On land, examples of year-round wildlife are barren-ground caribou, polar bear, arctic fox, arctic hare, lemming, and arctic wolf. With its huge size of 507K sq.km (196K sq.miles) and virtually non-existence of roads, it is extremely difficult to explore this island by conventional means. Waterfowl include Canada goose, snow goose and brant goose (brent goose). Pond Inlet has civil twilight from December 16 to December 26. Arctic hare are found throughout the island. Visit one of the most unique polar tourism destinations in the world with Arctic Bay Adventures. [23][24] In about 986, Erik Thorvaldsson, known as Erik the Red,[25] formed three settlements near the southwestern tip of Greenland. The eastern community of Clyde River has twilight instead of night from April 26 until May 13, continuous sunlight for 2½ months from May 14 to July 28, then twilight instead of night from July 29 until August 16. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. [6] South of the western end of the island is the Fury and Hecla Strait,[7] which separates the island from the Melville Peninsula[8] on the mainland. Unlike the grey wolf in southern climes, Arctic wolves often do not hunt in packs, although a male-female pair may hunt together. Spring thaw arrives much later than normal for a position straddling the Arctic Circle: around early June at Iqaluit in the south-east but around early- to mid-July on the north coast where glaciers run right down to sea level. To the south lies Hudson Strait, separating Baffin Island from mainland Quebec. Baffin, northernmost and easternmost region of Nunavut territory, Canada.In 1967 it was created as Baffin region, Northwest Territories, from most of what was formerly Franklin district, and it took on its present borders with the creation of Nunavut in April 1999.The largest of Nunavut’s three regions, Baffin extends southward from the northern tip of Ellesmere Island. "Dietary Nutrient Profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit Differ by Food Source, Season, and Age.". [14][15] Another peak of note is Mount Asgard, located in Auyuittuq National Park, with an elevation of 2,011 m (6,598 ft). 2016 Census. Ottawa. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. It is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest island in the world, with an area of 507,451 km² (195,928 sq mi). Pell, J., Grütter H., Neilson S., Lockhart, G., Dempsey, S. and Grenon, H. 2013. The surrounding waters provide haven for the Harp Seal, walrus, beluga whale, narwhal, and bowhead whale. This shows that the indigenous peoples in the Canadian Arctic developed yarn-spinning technologies without any help from the Vikings, the scientists said. Here’s a look at the stark and humbling beauty. Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (Baffinland) is a Canadian mining company, mining iron ore at the Mary River operation in the Qikiqtani region of North Baffin, Nunavut, Canada. What does this mean? Baffin Island, 183,810 sq mi (476,068 sq km), c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) long and from 130 to 450 mi (210–720 km) wide, in the Arctic Ocean, Nunavut Territory, Canada. 2017. Baffin Island, along with the rest of Nunavut, separated from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999. GHCN average monthly temperatures, GISS data for 1971–2000. Baffin Bay (Inuktitut: Saknirutiak Imanga; Greenlandic: Avannaata Imaa; French: Baie de Baffin), located between Baffin Island and the west coast of Greenland, is defined by the International Hydrographic Organization as a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. Census Profile. Well, literally it means that the brand was born in "The Great White North", Canada; and product that we still manufacture today in Stoney Creek, was first setup for production in the late 1970s. Baffin Island has been inhabited for over 3,000 years, first by the pre-Dorset, followed by the Dorset, and then by the Thule people, ancestors of the Inuit, who have lived on the island for the last thousand years. And Baffin Island, Marcott points out, is right next door to Greenland—home to an ice sheet that holds enough ice to raise global sea levels by more than 20 feet if it were to melt fully. Rai or Roy, a native of India, studied in India, London, and earned his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago. Baffin Island sits above the Arctic Circle on the easternmost edge of the Canadian territory of Nunavut, close to southeast Greenland. It’s home to the igloo-shaped St Jude’s Cathedral, museums and shops focused on Inuit art and history, and colorful Arctic houses. One of the largest walrus herds can be found in the Foxe Basin on the western side of Baffin Island. 98-316-X2016001. 2007. Iqaluit, the capital city of Nunavut, sits on Baffin Island. Many believe that Baffin Island is the "Helluland" of Viking legend. The Hudson Strait separates the island from the Labrador-Ungava mainland—of which Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador are a part - on its south. It’s Baffin Island that draws the most visitors to Nunavut every year, and it isn’t hard to see why. Baffin Island (Inuktitut: ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk IPA: [qikiqtaːluk], French: Île de Baffin or Terre de Baffin), in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. Iron-ore deposits have also been found in the island's north. It is a land of deep valleys, spectacular fjords, rolling tundra, and jagged mountain peaks. The two largest lakes on the island lie in the south-central part of the island: Nettilling Lake (5,542 km2 [2,140 sq mi]) and Amadjuak Lake (3,115 km2 [1,203 sq mi]) further south. Ottawa. Female polar bears may travel 10–20 km (6–12 mi) inland to find a large snow bank where they dig a den in which to spend the winter and later give birth. Named after English explorer William Baffin, it is likely that the island was known to Pre-Columbian Norse explorers from Greenland and Iceland and may be the location of Helluland, spoken of in the Icelandic sagas. Proceedings of the 10th International Kimberlite Conference, Bangalore; Springer, New Delhi; extended abstract, 4 p. Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Baffin Island / Île de Baffin (Formerly Baffin Land), "Mount Thor -The Greatest Vertical Drop on Earth! As the ice caps on Baffin Island shrink, the landscape beneath is seeing the light of day for the first time in perhaps 120,000 years. Remote and virtually untouched, the world’s fifth-largest island is quickly gaining a reputation as one of the best places in the Arctic for expedition travel. Arctic hare, along with lemmings, are a primary food source for the island's fox and wolf populations. It features the many terrains of Arctic wilderness, such as fjords, glaciers, and ice fields. These animals are scavengers, and often follow polar bears to get their leavings. On the west and north, Foxe Basin, the Gulf of Boothia and Lancaster Sound separate Baffin Island from the rest of the archipelago. [25] Baffin Island is thought to be Helluland, and the archaeological site at Tanfield Valley is thought to have been a trading post. On land, examples of year-round wildlife are barren-ground caribou, polar bear, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, lemming and Arctic wolf. Although Auyuittuq was established in 1976 as a national park reserve, it was upgraded to a full national park in 2000. William Sneed and his colleagues at the University of Maine compared historical and current data on one of Barnes's three ice domes and found a link between the warming climate and the accelerating thinning. Waterfowl include Canada goose, snow goose, and brent goose (brant goose). It is larger in area than Spain, but has a population of only 13,000 people (2016). Baffin Island (Inuktitut: ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ, Qikiqtaaluk IPA: [qikiqtaːluk], French: Île de Baffin, Terre de Baffin, formerly Baffin Land),[3] in the Canadian territory of Nunavut, is the largest island in Canada and the fifth-largest island in the world. edit History. These prospered until the early 1900s, and was eventually replaced by the Hudson's Bay Company who opened a trading outpost. As winter progresses, they will always remain where there is open water free of ice. Most of Baffin Island lies above the Arctic Circle and all the communities from Pangnirtung north are subject to Polar night and the midnight sun. Here’s a look at the stark and humbling beauty. The ringed seal is a year-round resident of Baffin Island, where it lives off-shore within 8 km (5 mi) of land. Auyuittuq National Park is a national park located on Baffin Island's Cumberland Peninsula. This gives the community just over 3½ months without true night. On Baffin Island, Arctic foxes are sometimes trapped by Inuit, but there is no longer a robust fur industry. And Baffin Island, Marcott points out, is right next door to Greenland—home to an ice sheet that holds enough ice to raise global sea levels by more than 20 feet if it were to melt fully. History of Baffin Island Inuit. This yarn consisted of three s-twist strands that were z-plied, much like the way a three-ply yarn is made now, the Baffin Island yarn was a simple two-ply yarn. Baffin Island lies in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago just west of Greenland and is the world’s fifth largest island. Exploration and discovery of the Chidliak Kimberlite Province, Baffin Island, Nunavut: Canada’s newest diamond district. An interesting example is the Tibetan Plateau, where the monsoon creates steady strong winds from December to April, and calm winds from June to October. That year the community voted to restore the Inuktitut name.[5]. Though the name comes from excavations made at Cape Dorset on Baffin Island, it is not clear where this culture originated, though several theories exist. It is a part of Nunavut, the largest and newest territory of Canada, which was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999. Its population of approximately 11,000, three-quarters of which is Inuit, reside in small coastal settlements. It is jointly owned by Nunavut Iron Ore and ArcelorMittal and operates a high-grade iron ore mine here. [...] Our investigations indicate that Paleoeskimo (Dorset) communities on Baffin Island spun threads from the hair and also from the sinews of native terrestrial grazing animals, most likely musk ox and arctic hare, throughout the Middle Dorset period and for at least a millennium before there is any reasonable evidence of European activity in the islands of the North Atlantic or in the North American Arctic. If pack ice moves in, they may venture out 4-10 km (2½-6 mi) and follow the pack ice, dragging themselves up on an ice floe to take advantage of the sun. Shortly after he started at the Field Museum he joined the 1927-1928 Rawson-Macmillan Expedition to Baffin Island and Labrador. He was retracing the steps of another. We feel that the most parsimonious explanation of this data is that the practice of spinning hair and wool into plied yarn most likely developed naturally within this context of complex, indigenous, Arctic fiber technologies, and not through contact with European textile producers. The settlement of Iqaluit was home to an American Air Force base from 1949 to 1963, providing a great boom to the local economy. The ice-capped mountains are some of the highest peaks of eastern North America, reaching a height of 1525-2146 meters above sea level. Visit one of the most unique polar tourism destinations in the world with Arctic Bay Adventures. It is Canada's oldest ice, being approximately 20,000 years-old. This island is inhabited by 11,000 based on the estimated data in 2007. Water species that visit Baffin Island in the summer are: Harp seals (or saddle-backed seals), which migrate from major breeding grounds off the coast of Labrador and the southeast coast of Greenland to Baffin Island for the summer. Goose ( brant goose ). [ 27 ] the northeastern coast of spun... Mines, producing silver, lead, and plovers owned and operated community of Arctic Bay.. Nunavut, sits on Baffin Island has been inhabited by the Inuit owned and community. Expedition to Baffin Island and much of Canada during the summer ft ) between 1970 and.. And completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New world Encyclopedia standards, various waders ( commonly sandpipers! Ecoregion, having a high Arctic ecoclimate, is located near the southwestern tip of the Arctic air among. Arctic wolf is also a year-round resident of Baffin Island, in,. 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