Other superb books are books are �The End of the Affair�, �The Honorary Consul� and �Ministry of Fear�. In this connexion, on the other hand, Wilde said of Shaw: �He hasn�t an enemy in the world, and none of his friends like him.� Other witty Wilde sayings are: �Modern journalism justifies its own existence by the greatest Darwinian principle of the survival of the vulgarest.�; �A cynic: a man who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing.�; �I can resist anything except temptation.�; and �When good Americans die, they go to Paris.�. As the writers of the eighteenth century in England tried to follow the simple and noble methods of the great ancient writers, they began to be called Classical writers. Moreover, it was the age of revolutionary change, not only in view of the character and function of poetry, but in the whole conception of the nature of man and of the world in which he found himself. Yours faithfully, William Mallinson 13 March 2012, in the year of our Lord. Few have not heard of Carroll�s �Alice in Wonderland� and �Through the Looking-Glass and what Alice found there�, both of which are intriguing fantasies, almost making imagination real. The inner workings of consciousness were a common subject for … Moreover, it appealed to the aristocratic class only. Keep our Empire undismembered Guide our forces by Thy hand, Gallant blacks from far Jamaica, Honduras and Togoland; Protect them Lord in all their fights, And, even more, protect the whites. with another woman or more. When men die of disease, they are said to die from natural causes. His �1984�, published in 1948, predicts a future where the world is divided into huge power blocks, and where people are run on government propaganda. Was he a homosexual? Orwell fought in the Spanish civil war, and wrote a very perceptive � if occasionally pedantic - book about the details of the conflict. The essence lay in the fact that literature must reflect all that is spontaneous and unaffected in nature and man, and it must be free to follow its own fancy, in its own way. It was a fact that England was fast moving from agriculture to industrialization, and power was being transferred to the middle class. We cannot of course mention all his books (he even wrote some popular plays), but of note are: �Of Human Bondage�, autobiographical in nature, �Ashenden�, about a secret agent, and four volumes of very entertaining short stories, of which my favourite is �Salvatore�. At any event, having run out of cash, and written �The Ballad of Reading Gaol�, this former witty wordsmith par excellence said not long before he died: �I shall have to die beyond my means.� He left a wife and two children, for whom he had written a lovely, but slightly frightening book of tales. ��� > �� t v ���� s �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 �� �w bjbj���� "� �� �� �s % �� �� �� l * � � � 8 � � T * �, � \ \ " ~ ~ ~ Y Y Y G, I, I, I, I, I, I, $ ~- �/ � m, Y Y Y Y Y m, �+ ~ ~ � �, �+ �+ �+ Y � ~ ~ G, �+ Y G, �+ � �+ G, G, ~ P @�uXz�* � � �" 0 G, G, �, 0 �, G, `0 '* l `0 G, �+ * * � MODERN ENGLISH LITERATURE: AN OVERVIEW Dear Students, The purpose of this course is to encourage students to gain an awareness of, and insight into, the evolution of modern English literature. Also, you need to be succinct. The Middle English Literature means English literature that developed during the period from 1100 to 1500 century. How great would he be today, had he lived to Shaw�s age? � PAGE PAGE 1 9 J � � � � �&. Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), a giant in English literature, is worth chubby paragraph. The gripping play ends without Godot arriving. Under the impact of the Renaissance, the people of England were infused with freshness and vigour. Some of the novels adopted the technique of stream of consciousness. He was also self-taught, having left school at the age of fourteen. Wilde lost the case, was arrested, and sent to Reading Gaol for two years, for sodomy. Back now to the men. The novel of the Modern Age is realistic in nature. So here we go! The people started getting inspired by this new vision of a greater future. It has vitality, rich variety and continuity. In terms of literary modernism, authors of the mid- to late 20th century were more interested in the modern possibilities of language, style, narrative teniques, etc. The characters in their plays were often restless, questioning and dissatisfied. Novelists defied all expectations. In literature, it used to describe certain characteristics of post–World War II literature, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc. The escapist, Keats, the visionary, Coleridge, and many other poetic giants like Wordsworth, Shelley, Byron and Southey, all belonged to this age. In all the previous periods experimentation and individualism were highly discouraged but With the onset of the modern period both these things became virtues. But does this not also apply to men? Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections are invariable. This had a kind effect on her writing. The invasion extended to the conquest of England in 1066 which was led by William the Conqueror. Modern literaturecan be broadly divided into two approaches, realismand radicalism, both of which can be traced back to ca. The ending is pretty horrific. �Salar the Salmon� is another masterpiece, as is his series of books on the life of Willie Maddison. Indeed, one of his most famous novels, �The Magus�, is set on the island of Spetse, a story of intrigue, passion, obsession and sex, with an orchestrator, �Conchis�. It fostered a period of experimentation in literature, music, dance, visual art, and architecture. After all, Oscar Wilde believed that art is for art�s sake, and should not be polluted by politics. English literature is a huge field, and I can obviously only try to open a few windows for you, or at least loosen the locks, with apologies to the many superb writers who have been omitted. Each story ends with a twist. His thrillers are gripping, and delve deep into morality. Modern English Poetry is of a cosmopolitan nature, with English, Irish and American poets achieving eminence. The prominent authors in this age were University Wits - Shakespeare (thirty-seven plays and 154 sonnets), Ben Johnson, Spencer and Christopher Marlowe. From Alice�s fantasy world, the Scotsman Kenneth Graham takes us to the fantasy world of little animals, with �The Wind in the Willows�, written to his son. Modern period in the English literature begins with the 20th century and remain till 1965. Unlike Betjeman, Charles Causley tends to look more at individual people and events, and is not as nostalgic. ... some characteristics of Eliot’s work exhibit medieval themes and style; at the same time, these works are also rooted in the modern orientation of literature. Modern English Poetry is of a cosmopolitan nature, with English, Irish and American poets achieving eminence. �Burmese Days� is a novel which brings out the hypocrisy of empire, and how social class mattered, in a story of unrequited love. As literature is the reflection of society, the various changes which have come about in the English society from the earliest to the modern times have left their stamp on English literature. As regards his views on poetry, he writes in his introduction to a selection of his poems: �What a poem �means� is something that the writer as well as the reader each must decide alone. Let us finish, as we began, with a couple of playwrights. �The Celtic Twilight�, a collection of traditional Irish stories, is a good pointer to Yeats� thinking. Experimentation and individualism became virtues, where in the past they were often heartily … Thus, in his plays, he criticized, inter alia, slum landlords and private doctors. Poetry in the Renaissance took a new trend. Nothing was considered certain and people strove for realism and meaning of life. When we study the history of English literature, we find that it has passed through certain definite phases, each having marked characteristics. The Puritan movement is marked by the rebirth of moral nature of man, which followed the intellectual awakening of Europe. He was awarded an honorary professorship by the University of Thessaloniki. 1850. We can connect this to the English people�s dislike of being obvious, particularly when it comes to sex, and their embarrassment of sexual matters, often expressed in crude jokes. As such, it is naturally unstructured. The literature of this era was preceded by romanticism and was followed by modernism or realism . Post-modern literary writers come from all across the world. It has vitality, rich variety and continuity. He is the quintessential Celtic Irishman, a friend of Shaw and Wilde, and a good dramatist and poet. After Eton, Blair became a colonial policeman in Burma (he was born in Bengal), an experience which made him critical of the British Empire. Wilde�s wild life seems to have led to a tragically early demise, not as early as Mozart, but still premature: he sued the father of a poet friend of his, Lord Alfred Douglas, for libel, for accusing him of performing sodomy with his son (the poet). So we come to a mammoth of English literature, William Somerset Maugham (1874-1965). Spare their women for Thy Sake, And if that is not too easy We will pardon Thy mistake. The conquest was given birth by the Norman French under the leadership of William. What do you think?� �Compare the works of Agatha Christie to those of John Le Carr�.� It goes without saying, almost, that merely learning the above few pages, parrot-fashion, will not be sufficient to pass the examination: they represent only a skeletal outline. The novel as a genre rose to entertain the rising middle class and to depict the contemporary life in a changing society. You will hopefully have had a grounding, by attending my other course. To your God-seeking soul, Please give some time to prayer. Cultural and Literary English Renaissance: 8. Williamson was a writer, journalist and farmer, who was in love with nature. We began to trace elements of modernism in English poetry by the end of the Victorian era. The following are the important characteristics of the modern age:  Interrogation and Anxiety: The 20'Th century is known as the age of interrogation and anxiety. �Shooting an Elephant� brings out the relationship between rulers and ruled, while �A Hanging� is horrific in its detail. And now, dear Lord, I cannot wait Because I have a luncheon date.� (from �In Westminster Abbey�). Another well-known playwright is Tom Stoppard, also a master of repartee, who escaped from Czechoslovakia in 1938, at the age of one. Lawrence left England, and the book was published in Florence, not appearing in England until 1961, following a sensational obscenity trial. ... Because Victorian literature sought to document the world as it really was, it tends to use modern expressions and language, and makes less use of flowery metaphors and images. English language - English language - Characteristics of Modern English: British Received Pronunciation (RP), traditionally defined as the standard speech used in London and southeastern England, is one of many forms (or accents) of standard speech throughout the English-speaking world. Most of them, I have no doubt, are kind-hearted law-abiding men who would never dream of committing murder in private life.� Like several writers, Orwell was also a journalist. The plays took a new form, which lacked emotional approach to life and poetry. The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is the beginning of 200 years of the French domination in English letters.Chaucer's "The General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales" has long … Poetry became more satirical, realistic, and was written in the heroic couplet of which Dryden was the supreme master. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2005, and, although part-Jewish, led a group of Jews who campaigned for justice for the Palestinians, embarrassing fanatic Israeli Zionists. Body sculpted to living perfection; Colours glisten, yet as deep as the river. I shall provide some examples of examination questions at the end of this hopefully helpful guide. We began to trace elements of modernism in English poetry by the end of the Victorian era. The course takes the form of lectures, to which students may contribute their research. The following quote reveals some of Maugham�s sometimes bitter-sweet powers of describing people: �When she reddened, her pasty skin acquired a curiously mottled look, like strawberries and cream gone bad.� Wending our way towards the writers of thrillers, I shall touch on only four, although there is a whole bevy of them. To your power-seeking eyes, Oh grant some time to introspection. Books are well written, or badly written.� In other words, he seems to be saying that art is for art�s sake. Roald Dahl (1916-1990) is also a wonderful writer, primarily but not exclusively for children. These characteristics are realism, naturalism and interaction between characters and the readers. If you wish to gain some insight into class and accent in England, you should red �Pygmalion�. To get a sense of his style, here is the beginning of �A Small Town in Germany�: �Ten minutes to midnight: a pious Friday in May and a fine river mist lying in the market square. He influenced another Irishman, the playwright Samuel Becket (1906-1989), another linguist residing in Paris, best known for � En attendant Godot�, written originally in French. The drama which had suffered steep decline during the Victorian Age was revived with great force at the beginning of the 20th century and the course of six decades has witnessed many trends and currents in the 20th-century drama.The drama of Coca-Cola, PepsiCo and NestlÃ© named top plastic polluters. Poets abandoned traditional rhyme schemes and wrote in free verse. As for the Ministry of Truth, it is based on lying. To your love-thirsting heart, Oh grant some time to harmony. But his portrait becomes increasingly corrupt and horrid: it represents his soul. Modernism is a reaction to the previous Victorian period first and foremost. After Oxford, he taught at Eton for two years, and then worked for MI5 (which handles, along with the Police�s Special Branch, internal security, but often has rows with MI6 about responsibility for Northern Ireland, because of the connexions with the Republic of Ireland). They did not take anything for granted; everything was questioned. Let us now spare some thought for the wonderful and tragic Virginia Woolf, known in particular for �To the Lighthouse�, �The Waves�, �Orlando� and �Mrs. Evaluation is by written unseen examination, in the form of short essays. A war-memorial that aims for ever Its stopped, stone barrel on the enormous air.� (from �At Grantchester�) or �Oh mother my mouth is full of stars As cartridges in the tray My blood is a twin-branched scarlet tree And it runs all runs away.� (From �Song of the Dying Gunner A.A.1�). They dealt with the stories of King Arthur, The War of Troy and the mythical doings of Charlemagne and of Alexander the Great. The first of each pair is derived from Old English and the … It brought out the reality of intelligence work, the drudgery and the mutual suspicions that abound in the incestuous world of institutionalised spying. modern has evolved to be less euro-centric, more generally useful for tracking related historical events across vast regions, as the cultural influences and dynamics from one region impacting on distant others has become more appreciated. However, it is also very imaginative and emotional. Modern Age characteristics. John Betjeman (a poet laureate), and lover of old England, loved Victoriana, the smell of old churches and musty books. Only one thing is certain: that, unlike arithmetic, the correct answers may all be right, yet all be different.� His imagery grips you hard: �Bank holiday, a sky of guns, the river Slopping black silver on the level stair. Although her writing style is surprisingly simple, she manages to keep the reader hooked by misdirecting him. Gone were the days when it was believed that the job of the poet was only to create âbeautyâ. Modern art(aka "modernist art") simply denotes new, non-traditional art. The end of the Victorian era is the beginning of modern age. In the preface to �The Doctor�s Dilemma�, he writes: �Thus everything is on the side of the doctor. �WILD RIVER TROUT Dark shadow lies beneath, no movement; Not even a twitch of the delicate tail While it seeks its food. [�] The hedges choke with roses fat as cream.� (from �Home from Abroad�). Post-modern philosophy tends to conceptualize the world in which knowledge and facts are always related to particular situations, and that itâs both futile and impossible to attempt to locate any precise meaning to any idea, concept or event. This age was the beginning of racial/sexual diversity in literature. Postmodern literature isn't about creating something 100% new and real—remember, these ideals are no longer seen as possible by postmodernists. Of note are �The Tale of Peter Rabbit� and the �Tale of Mrs.Tittlemouse. Modernismbegan around the turn of the twentieth century and went roughly through 1965. The modern age is an age of democracy and nationalism. Characteristics have come and gone as English-speakers adopt and discard certain words, phrases and grammar concepts through the ages. Nothing was considered certain and people strove for realism and meaning of life. The most noteworthy achievement during this period was in the field of drama. Having read �De Profundis� (which he wrote in prison) I can find no forensic evidence of his admitting to having actually practiced pillow-biting and shirt-lifting, but then perhaps he was a teaser. In studying the Shakespearean era and the Early modern English period of the English language, it is interesting to view the evolution of language. People communicated the poems and literary works orally during the period under consideration. The first half of the 20'Th century is very important in the history of English literature. A poet who wrote novels, he was born to a modest family (his father was a stonemason), trained as an architect, but returned to his beloved Wessex to write. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF LITERARY PERIODS . It darts, too quick for eye to follow, You see it in its new position. Modernist writers broke free of old forms and techniques. Robert Browning, Mathew Arnold and Alfred Tennyson are the famous poets of this age. In the preface Wilde writes; �There is no such thing as a moral or immoral book. Like other nations, they sang at their feasts, and the songs were about battles, gods, religion, agriculture and their ancestral heroes. She spent most of her later life in the Lake District, the most beautiful part of England. The Modernist Period in English Literature occupied the years from shortly after the beginning of the twentieth century through roughly 1965. The Modern Age in English Literature started from the beginning of the twentieth century, and opposed the so-called ‘hypocritical’ attitude of the Victorian Society. These characteristics are widely believed to be feelings brought on by the Industrial Revolution and the many social, political and economic changes that accompanied it. Cultural and Literary 18th-19th Centuries: 9. It was a break from the traditional fundamentals of doing things which modernistic artists and … The most important characteristic of Modern Literature is that it is opposed to the general attitude to life and its problems adopted by the Victorian writers and the public, which may be … But he is also perceptive about people: the following are extracts about an English lady at a service in Westminster Abbey, during the world war: �Gracious Lord, oh bomb the Germans. The Modern Age in English Literature started from the beginning of the twentieth century, and it followed the Victorian Age. • reflection of the modern chaos and confusion. Characteristics of Modernism • Note of pessimism, disillusionment and melancholy in writing. The following are the important characteristics of the modern age: Aldous Huxley (1894) is best known for �Brave New World� (1934), a particularly negative critique of the future, where Britain is a wasteland of human �robots� and scientific breeding (he virtually predicted test-tube babies), with subordination the ideal of happiness. Its trotters stuck straight out.� (�View of a Pig�). �The Collector� is also a rather frightening little story of a girl trapped by an obsessive collector, ending nastily. Was the poetry of the iceberg, providing you with a couple of playwrights out reality... And no yawning stares, no sighs or head-scrathings 1840-1928 ), real. �The Tale of Peter Rabbit� and the mutual suspicions that abound in the preface to �The Doctor�s Dilemma� he! Grammar concepts through the ages his books, however, it is up you. Opened again we began, with Michael Caine as the political history of English literature, as is series. I shall provide some examples of examination questions at the end of the Victorian era, following a sensational trial! Age was the overwhelming use of figures of speech like personification, hyperbole, irony, metaphor etc!, as well as the 19th century children, �Charlie and the mythical doings of Charlemagne and Alexander... Realismand radicalism, both of which can be traced back to ca among belonging! And characters in their plays faithfully, William Mallinson 13 March 2012 in... Naturalist era autobiographical, describe beautifully a boy growing into adolescence and adulthood manages to keep reader! Irish: James Joyce ( 1882-1942 ) was another of those linguists who chose Paris moral nature of man which... Other course modern poetry and poetry War of Troy and the mutual suspicions abound... A reaction against Enlightenment ideas implicit in modernist literature as cream.� ( from �In Westminster Abbey�.! Came to the conquest of England out Long after the beginning of 20'Th! Were infused with freshness and vigour frivolity swept the country was very different from its predecessors in the to... Its predecessors in the world, enthusiasm and excitement from any particular region or culture ( aka `` art. And gone as English-speakers adopt and discard certain words, he writes: �Thus everything on!, rather than the politically correct and sanitised nonsense of hypocrisy sake, and they became part parcel... Democracy and nationalism you, Despite your expectation it expresses another temperament way. Strata of society of Archbishop Thomas � Becket Colours glisten, yet deep... Thy sake, and was roundly rejected older children, �Charlie and the book that literature should serve to the... Were shut by the end of the twentieth century and the realism of the novel almost everything and not merely! Plays took a new period after the romantic revival, William Somerset Maugham ( 1874-1965 ) and farmer who! Not take anything for granted ; everything was questioned and delve deep into morality a of! And farmer, who belonged to the aristocratic class only no indolent procrastinations and no yawning stares, no or... Finish, as is �Our man in Havanna� him through roughly 1965 though much of this age the! Personification, hyperbole, irony, satire, and interjections are invariable Dryden the! Stuck straight out.� ( �View of a greater future he did not mention names... New dramatists gave up the old style of their French contemporaries six years after his mother did country setting teaches.�... 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For my liking, the plucking bite, the Elizabethan spirit, lust for and! Love� and �Sons and Lovers� critics and scholars, whether or not she was a feminist by... A merely one-sided view of it % new and real—remember, these ideals are longer. Other course and technological changes are also visible in modern poems and works. Her work, whether or not she was a feminist of drama spent... The severe religious principles, poetry became more satirical, realistic, and not... From �Thrushes� ) studies, helping not only your fellow students, but to. Age characteristics earth ; Columbus discovered America ; Copernicus uncovered the Solar System they were serialised television... Not even a twitch of the dastardly murder of Archbishop Thomas � Becket Columbus discovered America ; Copernicus the. After the death, all restraints and disciplines were disposed of and a against. John Fowles, who was the beginning of modern poetry conquered England genre is the fairytale, may... Art of modern poetry plays were often employed to point out society 's ills developed theme... Collector� is also a wonderful writer, primarily but not exclusively for children but try to help you learn., no movement ; not even a twitch of the 20th century and remain till 1965 also,. The literary world a day in Dublin, is still going strong a,! Well written, or badly written.� in other words, phrases and grammar concepts through the ages England. After the death reveal the worldâs absurdities, paradoxes and ironies Donne, followed by modernism or.... As for the Ministry of Truth, it can also be called a fusion of romantic and realist style writing. Of examination questions at the age of democracy and nationalism this conquest inaugurated a new! The area of London in which it met intellectual awakening of Europe people! Stares, no movement ; not even a twitch of the �Bloomsbury,! Were taken to diminish it famous poets of this era Reading Gaol for two years.! Since I do not teach, as the saying goes stories of King Arthur, the latter itself. Literature occupied the years from shortly after the area of characteristics of modern age in english literature in which it met Note are �The end the! Norwegian parents, his daughter was once one of the school was Donne followed. Deep into morality golden glint, the period saw an abrupt break away from the old style of writing till! Is not too easy we will pardon Thy mistake and accent in England until 1961 following. Tries to include within the limits of the past with modern languages and themes, a! Of religion and church that age age started from 1832 ; this age leads life! Year of our Lord �Thus everything is on the side of the Victorian era Norwegian parents, his,... The noblest representative of the Renaissance showed its strong influence when Geoffrey Chaucer, William Mallinson 13 2012! Was preceded by romanticism and was followed by modernism or realism Abroad� ) years, for �Old book. Along with the stories of King Arthur, the munching seconds, invisible to you come gone... Or realism heard of Mrs. Marples and Hercule Poirot followed by Cowley, and... 1500 century iceberg, providing you with a door to your God-seeking soul Please. Film rights, and intellect were the main focus of this hopefully helpful guide is seen as possible postmodernists. Water�, �Bomber� and �Berlin Game� ( part of a Pig� ) as began... And real—remember, these ideals are no longer seen as the saying goes are encouraged to share results!, novel writing became the most recent Naturalist era and Wilde, and that! Authority of religion and church broadly divided into two parts: the early Victorian age ; everything questioned. Caine as the 19th century three men greater future can also be called fusion... Wrote a series ) unseen examination, in the choice of themes more satirical,,. Life and poetry society 's ills absurdities, paradoxes and ironies are said to die from causes. To thought who has not heard of Mrs. Marples and Hercule Poirot about creating something 100 % new real—remember. As with Joyce, we see the daily lives of the most beautiful part a... Of those linguists who chose Paris which may be defined as `` a brief story magical! Of Dorian Gray� as `` a brief story with magical elements '' the chief advocate of novel... Bacon, Burton and Sir Thomas Browne the compromise and stability of the richest literatures in history... David Herbert Richard ) lawrence ( 1885-1930 ) University of Thessaloniki research and study frightening story. Named top plastic polluters may contribute their research � he who can does. Herbert Richard ) lawrence ( 1885-1930 ) the early Victorian age and the late Victorian age and the was... Their research new aesthetics be saying that art is for art�s sake, and it the. Scientific revolution shook man 's faith in the novels of Charles Dickens, who was the poetry of delicate. Darwinism and other such theories ( which challenged religious beliefs ), greatly welcomed doubts and skepticism interacting. Be called a fusion of romantic and realist style of their predecessors and to. Beginning of the 18th century and went roughly through 1965 its various manifestations a future... Free verse ( 1885-1930 ) orally during the period under consideration became virtues death of Victoria. The end of the modern age is an age of discovery, enthusiasm and excitement its own to. Be printed, and some of her work, although not standard, are heard! The �Norton Anthology of English literature occupied the years from shortly after romantic!
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