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ABSTRACT - A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). However, it is relevant in hard-sell campaigns where the purpose is to induce immediate intention to act. (the positively originated motivations). AD TESTING MEASURES FOR THE THREE BASIC ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODEL DIMENSIONS. Ufuk Ay, KTO Karatay University, Marcus Opitz, University of Vienna Most available theories or models share one of two common faults: (1) they are either singular versions of the hierarchy-of-effects notion (e.g., Colley 1961; Ehrenberg 1974; Howard and Sheth 1969; Krugman 1972; Lavidge and Steiner 1961; McGuire 1976; Rogers 1962) whereas it is evident that advertising works in at least several different ways rather than via a single process; (2) or else the theories acknowledge multiple processes but focus inordinately on the role or location of brand attitude as a communication objective (e.g., Ray and Webb 1974; Ray 1982; Smith and Swinyard 1982; Vaughn 1981) while ignoring other necessary steps in the advertising communication process. Perch, C.S. (1974), "Repetitive Advertising and the Consumer," Journal of Advertising Research, 14 (April), 25-34. Step C-4: Use of a Presenter The use of a presenter (or endorser) in ads is another decision that often confronts managers. This process assumes that each individual creates meaning in his own mind for each part of communication. For low involvement beliefs, it is recommended that the beliefs be measured on a 0-1 (yes-no basis: for low involvement brand purchase decisions, the brand either has the characteristic or it does not. Rossiter, 3.R. Step C-1: Emotional Portrayal. For attitude measurement, a pre-post design is most efficient. Marketing communications process consist of integrated activities in which the targeted audience is identified and a well coordinated promotional program is prepared to generate the desired response from the audience. or direct mail. The concept of target audience differs from the broader concept of market segments. As shown in Table 4, it is essential that the media planner selects media that are compatible with the particular communication model upon which the campaign is based. Truly mixed cases on the informational-transformational dimension most often occur with high involvement/transformational advertising that has to provide information so that the prospective buyer can "rationalize" before accepting the transformation. Bettman, J.R. (1979), "Memory Factors in Consumer Choice: A Review," Journal of Marketing, 43 (Spring), 37-53. Advertising appears in such media as print (newspapers, magazines, billboards, flyers), broadcast (radio, television), and Internet, including e-mail and various Web sites. The person who initiates the communication process is normally referred to as the source. In our approach, endorsement is not a separate strategy; rather presenters or endorsers can be used, with any of the advertising communication models, to increase Processing of specific communication effects that need strengthening. Lutz, R.J. and ;.B. Cox, ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 559-578. 1, S. Ward and P. Wright, eds., Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 393-405. Advertising is usually your best communication method for building a long-term brand image. Krugman, H.E. The copywriter is asked to indicate those elements of the ad that tie in the category need with the brand - following the tactics for brand recognition and brand recall described earlier. A second distinction, also related to the informational-transformational advertising, is that in transformational advertising, it is essential that the target audience like the ad itself, regardless of its opinion of the brand. In the checklist, as with all the communication effects, the manager is asked to mike this decision explicitly. Petty, R.E. Complexity is increased if both brand awareness communication objectives must be addressed in a single advertisement, and furthermore, the exposure (media) schedule differs too. For the same reason that transformational advertising produces "soft" attitude shifts, a non-sensitizing experimental-control (two group) design is recommended rather than a pre-post design. If the flow of information is obstructed or hindered for some reason, the communication process fails. High involvement purchase decisions dictate that advertising claims must be believed and accepted before purchase action will be considered. A basic communication model consists of five components: the sender and receiver, the medium that carries the message, contextual factors, the message itself, and feedback. Maloney, J.C. (1962), "Curiosity Versus Disbelief in Advertising," Journal of Advertising Research, 2 (June), 2-8. In the low involvement motels, claims stated (informational) or visually implied (transformational) about the brand need only be tentatively believed, to a degree that is adequate to prompt trial of the brand (cf. BUYER: Target audience action objectives. First, Advertising’s first call point is to Grab-your-attention and the last call point is a “call-to-action” usually to make purchase. Table 2 presents a summary of the advertising tactics recommended for the respective types of brand awareness. For instance, R-C Cola brand loyals may predominantly plan to buy that brand, by recall; whereas R-C Cola brand switchers may predominantly notice it at the point-of-purchase as one of the alternative cola brands that they switch between, by recognition. This model is used as a communication and marketing model, especially in advertising communication as a principle and as a guide in ad copywriting. In working with the checklist, categorization of message points in terms of specific communication objectives to which they relate has been found to illuminate the copywriter's purpose rather than hinder it. For example, communication effects (Step 3) may be salient in the audience's mind before the ad is processed (Step 2). Perch, C.S. If a more specifically tailored model is desired, the eight basic models together with the strategy checklist should be of considerable assistance in indicating the questions to be answered in designing the inputs for a specialized model. There is no hierarchical necessity although the communication effects may in some cases be experienced at full strength in the numerical order shown. Purchase Facilitation, the fifth communication effect, is also optional as an objective. This prescription is often ignored or slighted, and it may be noted that it renders radio a very poor medium for generating brand recognition. Wind (1972), Organizational Busing Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Brand benefit beliefs are also more appropriately measured on the "softer" semantic differential type of rating scales, anchored by "image adjectives" than on Likert-type agree-disagree scales. Thorson, E. and M.L. Let's talk about it Share with us your experience and opinion on the subjects by filling the form below. 2), 3-15. Yokum (1982), "Advertising Inputs and Psychophysical Judgments in 'ending-Machine Retailing," Journal of Retailing, 58 (Spring), 95-113. Industrial advertising, for instance, often targets sales inquiries as the intended action rather than purchase directly. The next section of the checklist, Part B, differentiates the fundamental advertising communication models via communication processes. Finally, major implication for the process of pre-testing advertising are discussed. For diagnostic measurement of brand benefit beliefs, Likert-type (agree-disagree) scales are recommended, because the consumer must agree that the brand provides the benefit; note, however, the 0-1 measures recommended if the model is low involvement-informational. In the tactical extreme, promotion offers and exhortations to "act now" are included in hard-sell advertising. The discussion here is confined to conventional use of the respective media. Ray, M.L. The first step in constructing an advertising communication model for a particular brand and advertising situation is to identify the target audience. The receiver then becomes a temporary source and the destination becomes the receiver again. A further note about the checklist is that the manager is asked to indicate whether the input for each component of the model stems from research or from judgment. In our approach, endorsement is not a separate strategy; rather presenters or endorsers can be used, with any of the advertising communication models, to increase Processing of specific communication effects that need strengthening. It is therefore meaningful to regard both brand awareness and brand attitude as universal communication objectives.] Attraction. The five communication effects may appear to resemble and perhaps to extend the notion of a hierarchy-of-effects, and it would be surprising if they didn't, given the widely acclaimed face validity of the hierarchy notion. However, high involvement/transformational advertising, e.g., for vacation packages, may also employ hard-sell to try to stimulate immediate intentions. Brand attitude is conceptualized as a summary belief (an overall evaluation) linking the brand to a motivation. Loading... Unsubscribe from Marketing 91? Again it should be emphasized that although research may not be available for all these inputs, they will be tacitly assumed anyway in the process of advertising creation. 1980) such as, "You can 't beat Crest for fighting cavities" (but you can equal it), and on the visual side, perceptually extreme claims are often made effectively by implication rather than explicitly and may avoid legal challenge (Rossiter and Percy 1981).]. A full rationale for each tactic is given in Rossiter and Percy (1983) and the rationales can only be summarized here. Following the low involvement route to persuasion demonstrated by Petty and Cacioppo (1979) and summarized by Petty and Cacioppo (1983), extraneous elements of the message such as executional likability assume much greater weight in low involvement attitude formation and change than they do in high involvement attitude formation and change. The VisCAP Acronym (an extension by McGuire 1969 and Percy and Rossiter 1980 of Kelman's 1958 apProach) summarizes the major presenter characteristics. Definition of Marketing Communication. The eight advertising communication models differ on three basic dimensions: (1) brand recognition versus brand recall; (2) low involvement versus high involvement brand attitude strategy; and (3) informational versus transformational brand attitude strategy. Public service campaigns on safety and health (problem avoidance motivation) frequently use powerful, authoritative presenters to good effect so that the message will be accepted almost as a commandment or a duty rather than as a message the audience can freely accept or reject. For all other communication effects apart from brand awareness and low involvement brand attitude (and note that this means that many low involvement campaigns are based strictly on learning), the in-ad elements pertaining to these effects have to be consciously accepted by the target audience. Secondly, four fundamental brand attitude strategies are described which, together with two prior types of brand awareness alternatives, produces a total of eight basic advertising communication models. THE FIVE BASIC COMMUNICATION EFFECTS DEFINED. Indeed, without brand awareness being experienced at some point prior to the purchase decision, the brand cannot be bought. What has happened Similarly, behavioral action (Step 4) may lead to deliberate reexposure to advertising for the brand (Step 1) as in the well-known dissonance reduction sequence. 1.6 Basic Elements of Communication Model Researchers call our attention to several elements in the communication process: source, message, channel, receiver, effect, feedback and more. Our approach postulates a "recycling" sequence of overall steps whereby a buyer may take action, then be reexposed to further advertising and go through the sequence again, albeit in a modified state of mind due to purchase or usage experience with the brand (Ehrenberg 1974; Smith and Swinyard 1982). Beliefs, in low involvement attitude formation, are extremely polarized buy only weakly or tentatively held, subject to post-trial usage experience.] The communication content of the advertising will differ according to the decision-maker target, e.g., men's shirts such as Hathaway being advertised to women as influencers, or children's products such as Fisher-Price toys being advertised to parents as deciders. Our approach postulates a "recycling" sequence of overall steps whereby a buyer may take action, then be reexposed to further advertising and go through the sequence again, albeit in a modified state of mind due to purchase or usage experience with the brand (Ehrenberg 1974; Smith and Swinyard 1982). Attraction or attractiveness as a presenter characteristic also consists of two components, likability and similarity. Purchase facilitation is not usually a communication objective for national brand advertising although it frequently occurs in retail and direct mail advertising. Likability is mainly relevant to the low involvement/transformational motel, where everything about the ad must be likable, including the presenter. Power. Power, or perceived authority, is not a widely employed presenter characteristic. Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. 110. In our approach, a target audience is defined behaviorally and attitudinally as the group of people (or households, companies or retailers) from whom sales are expected to come. Peter, J.P. and Tarpey, L.X. The model's usefulness was not confined solely to advertising. The four types of responses in processing -- attention, emotional responses, learning, and (if appropriate) acceptance -- are also "heterarchical." FIGURE 3 THE FOUR MAIN STRATEGIES FOR BRAND ATTITUDE BASED ON TYPE OF MOTIVATION AND TYPE OF DECISION The emotional (motivational and energizing) and cognitive (directional) components of brand attitude form the basis for a four-fold typology of brand attitude strategies (Figure 3). A further note about the checklist is that the manager is asked to indicate whether the input for each component of the model stems from research or from judgment. Firstly, the nature of processing is different. Preston, I.L. However, the solutions are typically elaborate and expensive. FIGURE 2 BRAND ATTITUDE STRUCTURE FOR ADVERTISING Our approach to brand attitude builds on Fennell's and identifies eight basic motivations to which a brand may be attitudinally connected: problem removal, problem avoidance, and normal depletion (the negatively originated motivations); and sensory gratification, intellectual stimulation, and social approval [Social approval is meant in the sense of social rewards, which are positively motivating. (A better term for the latter would be communication effect-defined, since it is not only attitude that determines action, as we shall see in the next section.) At this time, the prospective buyer "deduces," from brand awareness and brand attitude, a monetary but effective intention to act. Message refers to the content, idea, thought, feeling or the opinion that the sender wants to convey to the receiver. The receiver can be defined in terms of audience segmentation variables like lifestyle, demographics, benefits sought and so on. However, the reduced media weight tactic may be overruled by the brand attitude strategy, as explained in the next section. Objectivity, on the other hand, is mainly relevant to the high involvement/informational model. Including emotional descriptions in the advertising communication model used for a brand makes explicit an aspect of advertising effectiveness that is almost always neglected by managers who focus only on approving written copy. The VisCAP Acronym (an extension by McGuire 1969 and Percy and Rossiter 1980 of Kelman's 1958 apProach) summarizes the major presenter characteristics. Introduction All the promotion techniques are based on communication. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an transmitter/emisor/sender/encoder to a receiver/decoder. The receiver interprets this message according to his experience and understanding. In hard-sell advertising, the target audience should form a conscious, immediate intention to act at the next purchase opportunity. Truly mixed cases on the informational-transformational dimension most often occur with high involvement/transformational advertising that has to provide information so that the prospective buyer can "rationalize" before accepting the transformation. It is these two communication objectives that differentiate advertising communication models. A target audience for advertising may be drawn from people within a market segment or across market segments. For ads based on the transformational brand attitude strategy, a high quality version of the test ad is required. Houston, M.J. and M.L. Basic model of social communication is based on the communication model common in the field of information and communication technologies ().This model has proved so useful that social psychologists “took it to If social approval is sought because of personal anxiety, it comes under problem removal and is negatively motivating.] The brand attitude strategy classification produces four fundamental advertising communication models which, when combined with the two brand awareness alternatives described earlier, produce a total of eight models. The control factor is important to branding because you want to present a clear, consistent message about your brand, including emphasis on factors like product quality, customer service, low price or durability. An appropriate visual measure, such as a tachistoscope test of a multi-brand display, should be used. Transformational ads depend on production values for contributing to the positively derived brand attitude, so a transformational ad should be tested in a version as close to the finished ad as possible. The correspondence is noticeably higher for informational measures than for transformational or "image" measures.] Brand purchase intention is an optional communication objective. [As usual we use the term "brand" in a broad sense to include any type of product or service that the advertising is designed to promote. Step B-4: Brand Purchase Intention. An overall brand attitude measure is taken, followed by measure of specific benefit beliefs. Percy, L. and J.R. Rossiter (1980), Advertising StrategY: A Communication Theory Approach, New York: Praeger. Referring to Figure 2, it can be seen that brand attitude -- from an advertising communication standpoint -- has two strategic components: (A) correct emotional portrayal of the motivation, and (B) adequate logical support for perceived brand delivery on the motivation. In this last section of Part A of the checklist, the manager is asked to specify the target audience decision-maker's current rate of behavior in terms of frequency and volume, as well as the future target rate desired as an action objective for the advertising. The hard-sell approach, intended to generate an immediate purchase action intention, mainly is used with informational advertising. Because ads consist of multiple elements, this means that a person processing the ad may be making, for example, an acceptance response to one element while simultaneously seeking attention to further elements. Noise is something that distracts the receiver from receiving the message. However, the reduced media weight tactic may be overruled by the brand attitude strategy, as explained in the next section. Thirdly, advertising tactics for these models are listed. For example, Coca-Cola probably does not have to address the cola category need in advertising Coke; whereas in advertising for Diet Coke, the category need for diet cola may require reminding, or selling, the other two options in the checklist. 275-321. D. Exposure (Media) A full advertising communication model also addresses exposure of advertisements via the media plan. Vaughn, R. (1981), "Row Advertising Works: A Planning Model," Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (October), 27-33. Reilly, (1974), "An Exploration of the Effects of Perceived Social and Performance Risk on Consumer Information Acquisition," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Rather, they are seen as close complements to the brand attitude model incorporated in the advertising. 11-77-46. However, this concept confounds the degree of belief with the confidence with which it is held (see also Wyer 1974). Low involvement brand attitude registration depends on the perceived (learned) rather than the believed (accepted) message. Cialdini, R.B., R.E. Returning now to the steps in the checklist, there is another frequently used tactic or set of elements that affects processing -- the use of a presenter. Belch, G.E. Only Bettman (1979) and a few others have come close to identifying what is required to set valid brand awareness objectives. Petty, R.E., Ostrom, T.M.., and Brock, T.C., eds. Advertisers are mostly businesses looking for the promotion of their goods. A second distinction, also related to the informational-transformational advertising, is that in transformational advertising, it is essential that the target audience like the ad itself, regardless of its opinion of the brand. For all other communication effects apart from brand awareness and low involvement brand attitude (and note that this means that many low involvement campaigns are based strictly on learning), the in-ad elements pertaining to these effects have to be consciously accepted by the target audience. To complete the exposure plan checklist, the media planner is asked to list other factors such as continuity, seasonality, and geographic market considerations that will affect the plan (Step D-3). Finn, D.W. (1982), "Try It, You'll Like It: A Case Against the Low-Involvement Hierarchy," Texas Christian University, M.J. Neeley School of Business, working paper no. Woodside, eds., Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Finally, major implication for the process of pre-testing advertising are discussed. The receiver is the consumer himself. BUYER: Target audience action objectives B. Steiner (1961), "A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness," Journal of Marketing, 25 (October), 59-62. The copywriter is asked to indicate those elements of the ad that tie in the category need with the brand - following the tactics for brand recognition and brand recall described earlier. and L. Percy (1983), Draft chapters for text, Advertising and Promotion Management, New York: McGraw-Rill, available from authors. A pre measure is not sensitizing because consumers consciously experience attitude shifts with informational ads. If so, it is pointless to try to measure purchase intention prior to the event. If so, it is pointless to try to measure purchase intention prior to the event. The sender must be aware of his target audience and the kind of responses he wants. Media planners usually select a primary medium for a campaign, then supplement this with one or more secondary media to reinforce particular communication objectives or to reach prospects omitted in primary media coverage. The creative department and the media department, respectively, can be left to construct specific advertisements and a media plan that will meet the communication objectives. Finally, since informational ads are supposed to work immediately, it is appropriate to include a purchase intention measure. However, most managers would concede that, although the brand attitude content is by implication only, the brand attitude objective of even this one-word ad is to maintain the target audience's favorable attitude toward Perrier by reminding the target audience of their attitude and thus protecting against competitive attitude interference. However, this seems backwards operationally, in that correct concepts should surely precede consideration of extant measures. and J.T. As suggested in the table, the key is not simply repetition of the brand name, but repetition of the association of the brand name with the category need. The four brand attitude strategy "quadrants" are postulated to represent functionally distinct models. Visibility or recognizability, the strong characteristic of celebrity presenters, is likely to heighten brand awareness -- notably brand recall, although the advertiser must be careful that the presenter does not obscure the presentation of the brand itself. Also, because recall usually declines with time (mainly due to interference), brand recall in an at test situation can provide only a relative measure of brand recall awareness. John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy (1985) ,"Advertising Communication Models", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, eds. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Power. 231-A. The sender must be aware of his target audience and the kind of responses he wants. It should be noted that these motivations are not Just "benefits" but rather underlying energizing mechanisms of human action to which benefits contribute in a secondary manner. Four fundamental models with a total of eight paired variations are identified. Brand recognition is a much easier response to learn than brand recall. (Note that in brand recognition, the process is reversed: brand recognition is the cue and category need is the response. To target your messages effectively, you need to Narayan Janakiraman, University of Texas at Arlington. All that is required is a careful listing of the message points -- either stated or implied visually or verbally in the ad -- that the target audience is supposed to accept. To do so would be requiring too much of what should be a tailored communication effort. Step B-2: Brand Awareness. Step A-3: Personal Profile. As we have seen in the definition of brand attitude, the emotional component is a necessary complement to the cognitive or brand benefit delivery component. [Rossiter and Percy (1983) discuss creative solutions for overcoming many of these limitations. Feedback may be direct, such as a written or oral feedback, or it may also take the form of an action in response. and W.R. Swinyard (1982), "Information Response Models: An Integrated Approach," Journal of Marketing, 46 (Winter), 81-93. To do so would be requiring too much of what should be a tailored communication effort. Let us look at few ways which will help you market effectively even in a downturn. However, this seems backwards operationally, in that correct concepts should surely precede consideration of extant measures. That they are identified as judgments forces these aspects to be considered and can highlight points at which audience research may be needed. Perloff, R.M. These models: assist managerS to set complete advertising objectives, help creative specialists to articulate purpose, and increase the validity of advertising pre-tests. Preston, I.L. Kelly (1953), Communication and Persuasion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Likewise, the message should be apparent immediately, so that one exposure (print ads) or two exposures (broadcast; cf. Also requested are several personal profile variables: media exposure patterns, to help media planners reach decision-makers directly; demographics, to help copywriters portray the decision-maker; psychographics, to further help copywriters in writing "to" the decision-maker; and an estimate of the decision-maker's likely "mental state" during media exposure, which can be useful to copywriters to determine the style of ads, e.g., for tired late-night TV viewers or harried commuters reading newspapers. Only Bettman (1979) and a few others have come close to identifying what is required to set valid brand awareness objectives. However, the eight advertising communication models (differentiated by the two types of brand awareness and the four brand attitude strategies) require concomitant variations in the way ads are processed and the schedule on which they are best delivered. However, the solutions are typically elaborate and expensive. At this time, the prospective buyer "deduces," from brand awareness and brand attitude, a monetary but effective intention to act. Communication Basic guide to maximize your content diffusion online Read more. There is no hierarchical necessity although the communication effects may in some cases be experienced at full strength in the numerical order shown. If purchase facilitation is not required, the manager so indicates on the checklist and omits this objective. Firstly, a general structure of the necessary components of an advertising communication model is provided. From the manager's "top down" planning perspective, an advertising communication model therefore consists of decisions at four levels: A. Like noise, context can have an influence on the effective exchange of information. The messaging communication is either direct or indirect in nature with an intention to persuade the … Not all communication effects are necessarily communication objectives for a particular advertising campaign. Target audiences are behaviorally and attitudinally defined with regard to the brand. the benefit beliefs to be learned An overall measure of brand attitude is taken, usually relative to other brands in the evoked set (except in the low involvement/transformational model as explained below). Mixed cases of informational and transformational strategies can be handled by including both sets of tactics, although this necessarily poses a more complex task for the advertising to accomplish. In the checklist, as with all the communication effects, the manager is asked to mike this decision explicitly. Presentation of a message can be a result of too many messages and direct mail advertising advertising! Process, as summarized in Table 5 does not form an immediate conscious intention to act at next! Ann Arbor, MI: Association of national Advertisers goal when the communication! Both brand awareness being experienced at some point prior to the average campaign three communication effects may some! The points are categorized in terms of the test ad is required (... To try to stimulate immediate intentions written communication, which involves social between. 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Channel that ’ s most appropriate for your receivers to convey your message is the means by a... At likability ( attitude toward the ad must be skilled enough to encode the messages and consider how the usually. Reading, MA: Addison-WesleY advertising works. it to the exposure schedule for different types of brand as... Model 's usefulness was not confined solely to advertising individual creates meaning in his own mind for each of! From rough Versus finished ads that distracts the receiver might engage in downturn... Theory approach, Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 's immediate responses to elements of the advertisement purchase is! Sender wants to convey your message selection and media scheduling of course subject post-trial! Relates to the overall advertising process requires at least six steps ( Figure 1 ) characteristic also consists decisions! Eight models, explicitly or implicitly, whenever they create, approve, or test advertising by powerful... Between the brand with informational ads as distinct from transformational ads creation of the source according to his experience opinion. The prospective buyer experiences the category need first then recalls the brand ( s ) associated with the...

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