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Responses and Management :: Primary. The institute undertakes core research in volcanic activity as well as the associated hazards and environmental impacts. The March event forced a brief evacuation of around 500 local people,but the 14 April eruption was ten to twenty times more … At this stage the collaboration and coordination between the Civil Protection Authorities and stakeholders begins. THE STUDENT ECONOMIC REVIEW VOL.XXVIII 129 EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL AND THE 2010 CLOSURE OF EUROPEAN AIRSPACE: CRISIS MANAGEMENT, E CONOMIC IMPACT, AND TACKLING FUTURE RISKS ELIN THORA ELLERTSDOTTIR Senior Sophister The 2010 eruptions at Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland struck fear into the hearts of air - line executives and news presenters alike. 2011). The evacuation went better because of the experience from previous eruption. The ice cap covers an area of about 100 square kilometres (40 square miles), feeding many outlet glaciers.The main outlet glaciers are to the north: Gígjökull, flowing into Lónið, and Steinholtsjökull, flowing into Steinholtslón. Katla was included here as earlier response plans were centred on a Katla eruption rather than a response to an Eyjafjallajökull eruption. This is one of many key lessons that have been documented and investigated through the FUTUREVOLC project. To the detriment of the overall aim of DCPEM, IMO and IES to provide ‘one voice’, Iceland’s president publicly stated: “you ain’t seen nothing yet” in relation to a Katla eruption (see The aim was to gather all the information electronically in an online catalogue, now available at (, to improve public and official understanding of the current state of Iceland’s volcanoes. Despite the plans and strategies that had been developed to deal with volcanic crises in Iceland, all agencies and organisations involved in disaster risk reduction were faced with an event that they had not previously experienced. However, IES is called upon to provide advice to DCPEM and other government agencies prior to and during times of volcanic crises (Þorkelsson 2012). Tephra fallout and flood inundation data derived from Gudmundsson et al. Since the volcano erupted only 9 years ago, the likelihood of Eyjafjallajökull erupting within the next few years is not very likely but volcanoes are not easily predictable. The chapter also considers the eruptions’ impacts at the local level. This growth is expected to continue in the coming years. For my first post, I thought I would cover my favourite case study from A level. A tale of two cities: responses to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and lessons for health disaster management. PDF (Published Version) - Published Version … The DCPEM in conjunction with IMO and IES held meetings critical to local residents in Vík, as well as Heimaland, where concerned citizens were given the opportunity to discuss their worries associated with increasing activity. Similarly, IES developed a designated webpage for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption as part of their website (see 2010; Bird and Gísladóttir 2014). As well as detailing the physical status of the eruption, the reports included impacts on the local environment, impacts on the Icelandic population, response measures being implemented and recommendations for effected populations to consider. In addition to sharing information via their websites and through frequent meetings, IMO, IES and other institutions, e.g. If a hazard assessment indicates increased threat, immediate measures must be taken to ensure the safety and security of those who are exposed/in the area. Department of Geology and Geography, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, p 103. This level is also characterized by public information, advice and warning messages. Heiðarsson et al. One survey interviewee summed up many people’s sentiment with the statement: Survey interviewees also found it disturbing when the international media portrayed them as helpless victims, dramatizing the summit eruption without any consideration of how people were living their day-to-day lives through the event. Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police, Reykjavík, p 22, Jóhannesdóttir G, Gísladóttir G (2010) People living under threat of volcanic hazard in southern Iceland: vulnerability and risk perception. Every permanent household exposed to volcanic hazards during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions was approached in these communities. This name, Eyjafjallajökull, didn’t exactly roll off news reporters tongue when the volcano erupted in 2010. Eyjafjallajökull (also known as Eyjafjöll) is located west of Katla volcano. The IVATF included representatives from government and industry groups involved in aviation … Its peculiar and unusual name, Eyjafjallajökull, is formed due to combination of various words with meanings, viz., Eyja meaning island; fjalla meaning mountain; and jokull meaning glacier. The glacier of Eyjafjallajökull is approximately 100 square kilometres (39 square miles), making it the country’s sixth largest. Preparation done in the years prior to the eruption proved crucial to the execution of monitoring, in particular relating to the life-threatening flood hazard. We did not evacuate our home, in these farms here, because there was no risk that the flood would reach the farms, but there was a possibility that we would be cut off. This group played an active role in crisis communication with the responsibility of disseminating information to tourists stranded in Iceland and offering alternative activities to them while they were waiting for flights out of the country. Here is the Times‘ graphic showing just how widespread the airport … Design Cross-sectional study. 2015). In this blog post, we describe how BBVA USA, a financial institution that ranks among the top 25 largest commercial banks, used AWS services to implement event management at scale and centralize its event response. A 500-meter- (2,000-foot) long fissure opened in the Fimmvörduháls pass to the west of the ice-covered summit of Eyjafjallajökull. About the Volcano...• Eyjafjallajökull is the name of the glacier that sits on top of the volcano, meaning “Island Mountain Glacier”.• The volcano is actually called Eyjafjoll.• The caldera at the top of the volcano is 2.5km wide.• Multiple sources of data were used to develop this narrative of crisis coordination and communication during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. (2012) and Þorkelsson (2012). Iceland sits astride the Mid Atlantic ridge and is owes its entire existence to … A full-scale evacuation exercise for communities surrounding the Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes was last conducted in 2006. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7307–7312, Gissurardóttir ÓS (2015) Mental health following the volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in 2010: a population-based study. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20 March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.. The health concerns among local residents (Bird and Gísladóttir 2012) were therefore justified, with resuspended ash proving to be of equal importance to that emitted from the volcano (Thorsteinsson et al. Masters thesis in Environment and Natural Resources, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland. In light of increased seismic rates in and around Eyjafjallajökull at the start of 2010 (Gudmundsson et al. 2015). This need for resilience is not confined to the local population, but also includes the ever-increasing number of tourists who visit Iceland and who engage in activities around Iceland’s active volcanoes. These reports were openly discussed with local residents at a Temporary Service Centre established in Heimaland to deal with the crisis, which is in close proximity to Eyjafjallajökull. Emergency phase is characterized by an event which has already begun and could lead, or already has led to, harm to people, communities, properties or the environment. The survey incorporated 15 semi-structured interviews with officials and residents alongside a questionnaire disseminated to households living within the vicinity of the Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes. The questionnaire and semi-structured interviews asked respondents to detail their: personal experience prior to and during 20 March and 14 April eruptions; affects of the eruptions on individuals, family, property and businesses (agriculture/tourism); and, use of various media sources to access information on Eyjafjallajökull and Katla. A Response to the April 2010 Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Eruption 3 (ANSPs), regulators and government agencies are forced to gather what scientific advice they may find in response to an adverse event as it develops. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano erupted in 920, 1612 and again from 1821 to 1823 when it caused a glacial lake outburst flood (or jökulhlaup). However, some survey respondents indicated that they did not receive the SMS or call to evacuate while others who did receive it chose to ignore it. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Nathan K Ho, 1,2 Aleah C Henry, 3 Kathene Johnson-Henry, 1 and Philip M Sherman 1,2. Representatives from all these levels form the Civil Protection and Security Council, which sets strategies relating to civil protection, security and emergency management for the nation for 3-years at a time. Here, the general public along with government officials and agencies were able to access timely data including status reports, satellite images and maps, GPS time series data, chemical composition analyses of rocks and ash, grain size distribution of ash, photos of the eruption, lahar reports and related academic publications. The two anonymous reviewers are also thanked for providing invaluable recommendations that helped improve the manuscript from the original. Moreover, as the plans were aimed at mitigating jökulhlaup risk, they were developed for a local response only; they did not consider international impacts of an ongoing eruption or a response to deal with the overwhelming international interest in the event (Heiðarsson et al. pp 271-288 | Iceland has several volcanoes and is situated on two tectonic plates – the North American plate and Eurasian plate. The power and wrath of Eyjafjallajökull came into dramatic clarity this weekend as the clouds parted for the first time since the glacier-topped volcano threw world air travel into turmoil. Once you have obtained your login credentials from … I am struggling to find any information on Google so any help is deeply appreciated. Hence, it is not surprising that the survey revealed the majority (50%) of respondents heard about the commencement of the eruption via a family member, friend or neighbour. The word is a compound of three different words. It is very misleading and wrong description that the impacts were confined to Eyjafjöll…We still live with ash storm when the wind is blowing. First, Eyja which means islands, but that refers to the Vestmannaeyjar Islands just off Iceland‘s coast. While Eyjafjallajökull’s eruption was huge and disruptive, it pales in comparison to the poten… As Þorkelsson (2012) points out, IMO did not and still does not have a designated press office that can deal with a huge demand for crisis information yet they were faced with an enormous influx of requests, fielding calls from around 100 international reporters on just day two of the summit eruption. The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010. If you think trying to remember how to spell it is difficult, try pronouncing it!!! The work was then linked to the FUTUREVOLC project. 82, 2008 states that NCIP is responsible for assigning alert levels (Text box 1), in collaboration with the relevant Chief of Police, for all natural and man-made hazards (Ministry of the Interior 2008). A study conducted by Carlsen et al. Other improvements included modifications to the IMO website, in order to enhance communication with the broader population. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Respondents’ feelings towards the management of the evacuations in relation to the 20 March and 14 April eruptions. This undermines decision making processes because prior scientific information is rarely available in an appropriate … As such, IES does not have any statutory obligations with respect to the monitoring and communication of volcanic activity. It may be… The catalogue is written in English, somewhat reducing its potential usefulness for local populations. Despite this experience, formal guidelines have not been established. First, Eyja which means islands, but that refers to the Vestmannaeyjar Islands just off Iceland‘s coast. In addition to posting on the DCPEM website, the reports were disseminated to government cabinets and ministries, foreign embassies located in Iceland, NGOs including the tourism sector and the Icelandic Red Cross, and media (Þorkelsson 2012). There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in … Eyjafjallajökull, lying in south-west of Iceland, is a volcano covered by an ice cap. managers face in developing appropriate response strate-gies acceptable to vulnerable communities. Eyjafjallajokull volcano, Icelandic volcano whose name is derived from an Icelandic phrase meaning ‘the island’s mountain glacier.’ Lying beneath Eyjafjallajökull (Eyjafjalla Glacier), its summit rises to 5,466 feet (1,666 meters) above sea level. These face-to-face meetings with local residents were critical as ash fall had not affected these areas for over 60 years and plans for dealing with this hazard were not established. The need for evacuating the region was realised with the impact of jökulhlaups charged with volcanic debris and icebergs, travelling at very high velocities (<20 km/h) (Sigurðsson et al. This paper uses the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April and May 2010 as a case study of disruption to civil aviation by airborne ash, with emphasis on risk management aspects. 2011). Population data was sourced from Ísólfur Gylfi Pálmason, the head of the Rangárþing eystra municipality, and Statistics Iceland (2016). These were done ‘in order to achieve the goal of being more flexible and communicative to the public, so guaranteeing its considerable educational value and ensuring the public trust in the IMO services’ (Heiðarsson et al. These complaints are posted under the assumption that the reviewer is always right and management is always wrong, at least in the case of a disagreement. Setting In spring 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted. The word is a compound of three different words. The ash seems to impact people a lot. …we did not receive any message, neither on the landline nor to the GSM phone. Eyjafjallajökull Case Study 2. Good collaborations were maintained with external partners based on already established communication links. In addition to their advisory role with DCPEM, IMO is tasked with monitoring, forecasting and disseminating natural hazard warnings to aviation service providers and the public (Karlsdóttir et al. After the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, IMO and IES began collaborating on a catalogue of Icelandic volcanoes, financed by ICAO. The Eyjafjallajokull volcanic eruption This resource could be used as a carousel activity with information sheets about Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and a case study record sheet for completion by students. Pre-eruption risk communication, in particular at the town hall meetings, enabled trust to develop between emergency management officials and the general public, which increased the effectiveness of communication during the crisis. This is followed by a description of contributing resources and data collection methods used in this chapter. Understandably, local agencies faced significant challenges responding to the 2010 eruptions. Air quality in Iceland, measured against the most commonly used health limit, was exceeded by orders of magnitude in local farming communities and villages during and after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Thorsteinsson et al. No understanding on the psychological state of people [who were living under] ash fall and later ash storms for months. The role of this group continued well after the eruption was over, with responsibility shifting from crisis communication to the promotion of Iceland through an advertisement campaign entitled ‘Inspired by Iceland’ in an effort to attract tourists back in the wake of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Firstly, published reports and academic articles were critically reviewed with reference to the events as they unfolded, with a particular focus on the activities, challenges and achievements of DCPEM, IMO and IES at the local level.

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